Maddie Davidson – Inspirational, Resilient, Hard-working, Role Model

“When you’re competing you think, ‘why do I do this?’ But you get such a buzz from it. Nothing else from it gives you that feeling like getting off a trampoline and finishing your routine. It’s a huge part of my life.” [3]

DAVIDSON Madaline – FIG Athlete Profile (gymnastics.sport)

Maddie Davidson is a New Zealander who made history by becoming the first female trampolinist selected to represent New Zealand at the Olympics [1]. Maddie is 22 years old, born on the 8th of January 1999 in Ōtautahi Christchurch, New Zealand  [2]. She started trampolining at the age of seven and first represented New Zealand at age twelve, and she has not stopped since! When asked why she began trampolining, Maddie says, “When you’re competing you think, ‘why do I do this?’ But you get such a buzz from it. Nothing else from it gives you that feeling like getting off a trampoline and finishing your routine. It’s a huge part of my life.” [3] Maddie trains as a full-time athlete at Olympia Gymnastics Sports with Alex Nilov, her coach.

Along with being a full-time athlete, Maddie coaches at Flips and Tumbles. She says, “Trampolining has provided me with some of the most amazing opportunities, so I started coaching as a way to give back to the sport that has given me so much.” Coaching soon became a passion of Maddie’s, and it is something she enjoys every day [4].

Maddie (center) trampolining as a child – Photo provided by Maddie

Career Highlight- World Age Trampoline Championships

Maddie has many outstanding achievements, but the 2017 World Age Trampoline Championships in Sofia, Bulgaria, made her renowned in her field. At this meet, she won two major awards: a bronze medal in the synchro event with her partner Kate Nicholson and a silver in the individual category [5]. Maddie said, “This was my fourth World Age Group competition. I actually got my previous best result here at the same Stadium in 2013 when I placed 16th in the 13-14 year age group.” In the World Age Competition, Maddie was the first New Zealander in over 30 years who medalled in the 17 – 21 age category. She was also the first Kiwi to win two medals in over 20 years.

Previous to this, Maddie’s career highlight was winning the gold at the 2016 Indo Pacific Championships in both individual and synchro. Maddie had some advice for other athletes, “If you really love it go hard. Work hard and you can achieve anything.” [6] . To date, the 2017 World Age Trampoline Championships is Maddie’s career highlight, and she said, “I would have to say the 2017 World Championships: I won two medals there and it was the turning point in my career that proved to myself that I could make the Olympics.” [7]

Maddie Davidson (left) pictured with teammate Kate Nicholson at the World Trampolining Championships in Bulgaria – Photo provided by Maddie Davidson

Olympic Qualification

The competition that qualified Maddie for Tokyo was the Aere World Cup in Brescia, Italy. Qualification for Olympic trampolining uses a ranking points system. Points are awarded over a two year period at specific competitions. When Maddie was going into this last qualifying event, she was sitting within the top 16 spots. However, there were three close rivals there too. After the Aere World Cup, Maddie moved up into the 12th position, securing a spot in Tokyo. Maddie said, “I was over the moon when I realized we had secured the quota spot. It is a real honour to compete for your country, and if I get the chance, being the first female at the Olympics will be something I’ll take a lot of pride in.” [8] .

Qualifying for the Olympics and being the first female trampolinist to represent team NZ was not something Maddie was ever expecting would happen. She said, “To be the first person to do something is a really special title. We worked so hard for five years to make the team, so when it happened, it was indescribable, one of the best moments of my life” [9].  

Roadblocks and Growth

Maddie focuses on psychological power and strength, saying it is more important than physical strength. Maddie said that “If you’re not strong in your brain, in how you feel on the trampoline, then it’s not the right sport for you. You’ve got to be able to step over that fear of making mistakes, falling off, or landing on your head, which happens sometimes.” [10] . She also talks a lot about the importance of a good mindset. A good mindset is something all athletes have regardless of their sport, size, colour, race. Maddie said, “I truly think the psychological outweighs the physical in my sport.

Having a resilient mindset was particularly helpful in 2020, with the Olympics postponed. “I was sitting outside just scrolling through Facebook when I found out the Olympics had been postponed,” she says. “I just started bawling my eyes out. I was so close to going, I could almost touch it – and then it was so far away. It was almost like I couldn’t see it anymore.” Lockdown was tough on Maddie. Fitness-wise, she was the same but had lost a lot of spatial awareness on the trampoline, and as no competitions were going on the rest of the year, she was able to improve and learn new, more complex tricks. “There is always a risk of injury when learning new skills,” Maddie explains. “But I managed to pick up four new skills last year. That type of growth doesn’t happen normally. It ended up being a good thing.” Before this, Maddie had mastered an advanced trick called the Triffus- a triple somersault with a half twist. Over lockdown, she had mastered the Half Triffus; female trampolinists do not commonly perform this skill. “I saw the boys doing the Half Triffus and thought, if the boys can do it, I can do it. It’s been really cool to add it into my repertoire,” Maddie announced [11].

When asked what messages she has for younger trampolinists who look up to her, Maddie says, “consistency is everything, it really is about showing up each day and trying everything you can to make those small gains. But, also make sure that you love what you do, because hard work is that bit easier if you are really passionate.” [12]

Tokyo and Beyond

Arriving in Tokyo was an unbelievable and fantastic feeling for all the athletes. Everything Maddie had trained for was finally happening. She had her individual qualifier on the 30th of July, and she was excited to show the world what she had. Maddie finished the competition placing tenth, an astonishing result for a first-time athlete! [13] Having the Olympics delayed by a whole year and competing at long last was such a relief and proud moment for Maddie. When asked about her future plans, Maddie says, “My current plan is to go for two more Olympic cycles, so until the 2028 Games. I’ll be 29 at that point, so we will be able to reevaluate whether we will go again after that. For the sport, I’m hoping that more girls will stick with trampolining or start getting into the sport. At the moment, it’s a male-dominated sport, so I hope more girls see that it is possible to push through to that next level.” [14] .  

Maddie Davidson is one of New Zealand’s most successful female athletes, being the first woman to represent Aotearoa New Zealand in trampolining at an Olympic level. The 2017 World Age Trampoline Championships proved that she could make it, and she has. Maddie focuses greatly on emotional resilience; this value has been beneficial over the past year. Maddie is such a powerful and inspirational woman that everyone in Aotearoa can and should look up to! There are many more notable achievements and moments to come for Maddie.


Published: March 24th, 2022

Last modified: March 24th, 2022

Cite as: Marina Antinova, ‘Maddie Davidson – Inspirational, Resilient, Hard-working, Role Model’, Womens History of New Zealand, edited by Nicole Johnston, Last modified March 2022, https://atomic-temporary-193744190.wpcomstaging.com/maddie-davidson-inspirational-resilient-hard-working-role-model/

Categories
Sophie Armitage

Yvette Williams

Yvette Williams, New Zealand’s first woman on the podium: Yvette’s journey from nationals champion to Olympic gold medalist.

Yvette Williams was a New Zealand track and field athlete, who made New Zealand sporting history with her achievements on the world stage. Her career saw her break numerous records and win many accolades. Her most notable achievement was being the first New Zealand woman to win a medal at the Olympic games. Yvette was born in Dunedin on the 25th of April 1929.[1] Her sporting career started early, and involved a wide range of sports. Williams was a talented netball and basketball player. She represented the South Island in both netball and basketball and represented New Zealand in basketball between 1950 and 1955.[2] Her athletics career began in 1947, when she joined the Otago Ladies Amateur Athletics Club.[3] Although she originally joined for social reasons, she quickly began to make a name for herself. She won the national shot put title in 1947 and her first national long jump title in 1948.[4] In total, she won 21 national titles across shot put, long jump, discus, javelin and the 80-metre hurdles. She eventually moved to Auckland from Otago in 1952 to follow Jim Bellwood, her trainer.[5]

While she was left out of the 1948 Olympic Games,[6] a  controversial decision at the time. She later won the long jump title at the 1950 Commonwealth Games held in Auckland. She broke the national, Commonwealth Games and British empire record at this event with a jump of  5.89 meters.[7] At this same meet she also won a silver medal in the javelin.[8] Yvette went on to continue to compete and smash records, particularly in long jump.

Yvette Williams (centre), after receiving her Olympic gold medal in 1952. https://athletics.org.nz/new-dunedin-meet-honours-yvette-williams-legacy/

In 1952, Yvette was able to compete on the world’s biggest stage, the 1952 Helsinki Olympics.[9] In the buildup to the games, she spent all her spare time training while also balancing a job as a secretary at a law firm. She spent lunchtimes and after work training in order to continue her preparations. Due to a lack of financial support for athletes at the time, she also had to be inventive in her training methods. One way she did this was by running with army boots on in order to build strength and make her feel lighter without them.[10] At the Helsinki Olympics, she competed in the discus, shot put and long jump. Although doing well in discus and shot put, placing tenth and sixth respectively, long jump was truly her specialty. On the 23rd of July 1952, Williams won the Olympic gold with a jump of 6.24 meters, giving her the Olympic record as well.[11] Her Olympic medal was the first of any colour to be won by a New Zealand woman.

With her triumph in the long jump, Yvette firmly stamped her name in New Zealand’s history books as one of our top athletes. She went on to break the world record in 1954 for long jump. Continuing to compete with great success in many athletic disciplines. Her sporting achievements were recognised by her countrymen with Yvette being awarded the Sportsman of the Year in both 1950 and 1952.[12] She also received an MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) in 1953.[13] Although Yvette retired in 1956,[14] she continued to have an impact on athletics through coaching as well as through her involvement with Special Olympians, helping to train intellectually disabled athletes.[15]

Yvette was continuously recognized for her contribution to sport many years after her retirement. She was inducted to the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame in 1990 [16] and voted Otago Sportsperson of the Century in 2000.[17] She continued to contribute to New Zealand sport for the rest of her life. She established the Yvette Williams Scholarship in 2013 which provides financial support for an up and coming athlete each year. The scholarship is to help young athletes continue funding their training, a resource that Yvette and many other athletes at her time did not have the luxury of. Notable recipients of the award include weightlifter David Liti and sailors Gemma Jones and Jason Saunders[18].

Although in her later years she developed a brain abscess that inhibited her speech,[19] she continued to inspire the next generation by attending New Zealand Olympic Team events, so as to talk with and inspire other athletes. Yvette Williams passed away in April of 2019 at the age of 89, however her legacy remains strong and is still being recognised. Most recently, she was posthumously promoted to Dame Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to athletics in the 2019 Queens Birthday Honors[20]. Yvette Williams will continue to inspire future generations of athletes to achieve their dreams through her dedication to sport.


Sophie Armitage
Sophie Armitage

My name is Sophie and I am a 21 year old student at the University of Otago. I am currently in my final semester studying a Bachelor of Arts and Science, majoring in History and Psychology and minoring in Sports Science. I grew up always loving history and have continued with the subject to this day. Outside of my studies I am also a keen footballer and love to go out and get active whenever I can. 

Recommended Further Reading:

Bibliography:
  • Kevin Boon, Yvette Williams, People of New Zealand History 2006, Kotuku Publishing

06 Feb 1951 – PROFILE Jumpers are her specialty – Trove (nla.gov.au).https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/23048998

Image Bibliography:
  1. Yvette Williams competing at the 1952 Helinski Olympic games in Long Jump, New Zealand Olympic Museum Collection. Yvette, setting the Olympic long jump record in 1952.
    https://www.olympic.org.nz/assets/Museum/corlett-yve-object-1.jpg
  2. New Dunedin meet honours Yvette Williams legacy | Athletics New Zealand. Yvette Williams (centre), after receiving her Olympic gold medal in 1952. https://athletics.org.nz/new-dunedin-meet-honours-yvette-williams-legacy/
  3. A wonderful athlete and inspiration, it is a travesty Yvette Williams was never honoured with a Damehood | Stuff.co.nz. Yvette Williams with two time olympic shot put champion Valerie Adams. https://www.stuff.co.nz/sport/opinion/112030351/a-wonderful-athlete-and-inspiration-it-is-a-traversty-yvette-williams-was-never-honoured-with-a-damehood

Published: August 27th, 2021

Last modified: January 5th, 2022

Cite as: Sophie Armitage , Yvette Williams, Womens History of New Zealand, Last modified January 2022, https://womenshistorynz.com/yvette-williams/

Categories
Liam Perkins

The Topp Twins

The Topp Twins – Musicians, Comedians, Activists.

Lynda and Jools Topp, better known as the Topp Twins are a musical performing duo hailing from Huntly. The twin sisters, known for their eclectic[1]  sense of humour and musical style which incorporates yodelling and elements of country, originally got their start performing at gigs in Christchurch before becoming involved in the feminist movement in the late 1970s.[1]

Their musical style derives from a mix of old Australian yodel music from the 1930s, difficult to get a hold of when the twins were growing up in the small farming town of Huntly.[2] The Twins learned their singing and yodelling craft alongside horse riding and farming, adding to their earthy sense of style and humour.[3] Their feminist politics and sexuality, as well as their distinct sense of humour, have been a part of their performances since the late 1970s. Though they originally began performing musically as a duo, they expanded rapidly to include skits and other performances during their shows.[4] The Twins wrote and performed the track Freedom for the 1978 United Women’s Convention, demonstrating their second wave feminist consciousness and activism. Jools Topp stated in 1980 that “‘Freedom’ is a real fighting song, a powerful song. We only sing it when we’re doing a women’s concert or when there are other women on stage.”[5]

The Topp Twins performing in support of lesbian and gay rights. Source: Stuff. https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/tv-radio/95592642/topp-twins-lives-laid-bare-on-the-walls-of-te-manawa

The song encompassed much of what second wave feminism was about in New Zealand in the late 1970s and 1980s, with the emphasis on women’s freedom and power to do anything.[6] The Twins also wrote songs that dealt explicitly with their lesbianism, such as Paradise, and other feminist anthems such as Sisterhood, which boldly stated “Bring all the ladies together/Bring ’em all together to be strong/We’ll give you something worth fighting for/We’ve been fighting for nothing too long/And it’s called sisterhood/Yes, it’s called sisterhood.”[7] Their country style music blended with their sense of humour has engaged audiences the world over, including in Australia, the UK, the US, and Canada. They have also forayed into television and often performed as a host of different characters in their performances, shifting “character, musical style and gender with ease.”[10] Their host of rotating characters and performances have included a range of satirized people from New Zealand culture, including urban/rural blokes, camping ground operators, ‘posh’ socialites, and bowling ladies.

A 2009 film, Topp Twins: Untouchable Girls, told the story of the Twins life on their 50th birthdays. The film, “ Part concept film, part biopic, part historical record and part comedy”, directed by Leanne Pooley, shared the links between the Topp Twins’ personalities, activism, performances, and symbols of New Zealand culture, while displaying their wide range of characters and styles of performance.[11] The Topp Twins have won a range of accolades throughout their long career. In 2008 they were inducted into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame, and in 2011 granted honorary doctorates from the University of Waikato. In 2018, Queen Elizabeth II made the Topp Twins Dame Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit for their services to entertainment.[12] The Topp Twins’ long-term success derives from their unique sense of humour, shifting characters and creativity, advocacy on a range of important social issues, and versatility in a wide variety of media.

The Topp Twins in character as Ken and Ken. Source: https://topptwins.com/pages/about-us

For the Topp Twins, moving around New Zealand and later the world provided thrilling opportunities to engage with a wide range of people and the chance to engage in feminist politics, particularly lesbian feminist politics, a strong issue in the late 1970s.[8] The Topp Twins’ artistry and politics have never been fully separated, and the twins were involved in a range of political causes, especially in the 1980s, including the Springbok Tour Protests, anti-nuclear NZ campaigns, and homosexual law reform. During the late 1990s, the Topp Twins moved into television programming with Do Not Adjust Your Twinset, which captivated audiences with its distinct mix of characters, which the Twins also performed as in live shows, and enabled them to reach a wide range of audiences outside of New Zealand. Do Not Adjust Your Twinset ran for three seasons, winning awards across New Zealand and Australia.[9]

The Topp Twins have made an undeniable impact on New Zealand media and their creative play with gender and sexuality in performance has normalized queer identities for the wider New Zealand public, especially in the 1980s when both the AIDS crisis and homosexual law reform were at their most contentious.[13 The Topp Twins are still active today, still performing and speaking out about a range of contemporary issues, including water rights and preservation, cancer issues, and leading in organizing events such as the Busker’s festival.


Liam Perkins
Liam Perkins

I’m Liam, I am 23, currently working on my MA project in US queer history in the 1970s.
I got involved with WHNZ to learn more about New Zealand history and contribute material to a database that would help others do so, as well as practice writing for different audiences. I really enjoy being able to learn and write about new topics on regular basis and helping others to do so.

Recommended Further Reading:

Bibliography:

Image Bibliography:
  1. The Topp Twins in the early 1980s. Source: RNZ https://www.rnz.co.nz/programmes/ours/story/2018647507/the-topp-twins-and-the-dolls
  2. The Topp Twins in the early 1980s. Source: RNZ https://www.rnz.co.nz/programmes/ours/story/2018647507/the-topp-twins-and-the-dolls
  3. The Topp Twins performing in support of lesbian and gay rights. Source: Stuff. https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/tv-radio/95592642/topp-twins-lives-laid-bare-on-the-walls-of-te-manawa
  4. The Topp Twins in character as Ken and Ken. Source: https://topptwins.com/pages/about-us

Published: August 6th, 2021

Last modified: January 5th, 2022

Cite as: Tim McVicar, Connie Purdue – Activist and “Anti-Feminist”, Womens History of New Zealand, Last modified January 2022, https://womenshistorynz.com/connie-purdue/


Categories
Tim Mcvicar

Connie Purdue – Activist and “Anti-Feminist”

Communist to Catholic, Labour to National – how Connie’s later perspectives contrasted years of advocacy for equal rights. “I learned very early not to put up with things … you can change things.”

Connie Purdue dedicated her life to agitating for social change. Her ideological positions shifted during her long life. Once an avowed communist, trade unionist and member of the Labour Party, she became a committed Catholic, National Party member, anti-abortion advocate and ‘anti-feminist.’[2] Throughout her life, the rights and duties of women were at the forefront of her activism. As a confrontational activist, she played a crucial and clarifying role in second-wave feminism in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when movements championing social liberalisation conflicted with her conservative morality.

Constance Miriam Purdue (née Soljak) was born in 1912 and grew up in Northcote, Auckland. Her father, Peter Soljak, was a Croatian-born gum digger and restauranter while her mother, Miriam Soljak (née Cummings), was a notable leftist political activist and founding member of the New Zealand Family Planning Association. Purdue credited her interest in political activism to her mother and the challenges she faced being married to a Dalmatian during the First-World War.[3] Soljak lost her English citizenship because of her marriage and was forced to register as an enemy alien.[4] With her seventh child on the way, Soljak registered as an alien but made the constable witness she did so, ‘under protest.’ Soljak subsequently joined the Women’s Branch of the Labour Party and the International Women’s League for Peace and Freedom and had the law changed. Motivated by her mother’s political idealism, Purdue spent her life protesting injustices in New Zealand society.

At the age of five, she was hospitalised after she contracted tuberculosis in a knee joint from unpasteurised milk. Later in life, she noted that “most of life has been pain[ful]” due to the TB.[5] She spent some time in Auckland hospital on a charitable bed and recalled that “it was here that I learned my class early and also my difference”[6] She attended a convent school, where she received prizes for theology. She left formal schooling at the age of eleven.[7] Purdue was married at the age of twenty. There is little public information about her two marriages, although she described both as ‘unhappy marriages’ ending in divorce.[8] Purdue had three children.

At sixteen, she became the secretary of the Young Communist League, sold their books and distributed materials about sex education.[9] Her support for communist ideology eventually gave way to support of Social-Democratic ideas and reforming industrial relations. She joined the Labour Party and, in 1967, was appointed to the Social Welfare office at the Auckland Clerical Workers Union. Confronted with low engagement by female members, Purdue organised social activities such as a luncheon club, self-improvement classes, fashion parades, holiday motels and counselling services to make female members more proactive in the union.[10]

In the late 1960s, Purdue joined the Council for Equal Pay and Opportunity as secretary and was effective in advancing the cause through campaigns.[11] Although the Government Service Equal Pay Act had passed in 1960, women still faced challenges, particularly in the private sector. As one woman, interviewed by Television New Zealand, stated at the time, “I don’t like the idea of equal pay for women. I feel that the male has to have something left, even if it’s just a little bit of extra money in his pay packet every week. I think we are going to rob him of his ego.”[12] Purdue championed the right of women to enter the workforce and that they should have the same pay and opportunities as men. In her own words, she sought to challenge the idea that there were ‘jobs for women and jobs for men.’[13] She hoped to change the attitudes of women about education and work. She wanted women to take the ‘long term view, that you are going to have a long working life, so that they see that as important and do become skilled.’[14] Purdue was influential in the passing of the Equal Pay Act in 1972.

In 1969, she joined the women’s liberation movement at Auckland University and in 1971 assisted with Australian feminist Germaine Greer’s tour of New Zealand.[15] In 1972, Purdue and Sue Kedley formed the National Organisation of Women (NOW), with Purdue the first president of the Auckland Branch.[16] In 1972 and 1973, she led protests against gender segregation in ‘situation vacant’ advertisements and for women to be allowed to work as newsreaders on TV and radio.[17]

However, by the early 1970s, Purdue’s beliefs about abortion conflicted with emerging trends in second-wave feminism.  Despite NOW branches in Wellington and Christchurch being responsive to abortion reform, Purdue’s influence meant that NOW did not have an official policy and she encouraged pro-abortion members of NOW to join other organisations.[18] In 1974, Purdue was replaced as president. Subsequently, the Auckland Branch of NOW supported the free availability of contraception and the right to abortion in line with other branches in the country.  Many members of the Auckland Branch, encouraged by Purdue, resigned in protest.

By this point, Purdue’s increasingly religious and socially conservative views alienated her from most feminist and reform orientated political organisations. She was concerned that the State was becoming increasingly involved in the private affairs of the family. Purdue described abortion as a ‘dividing line’ and believed feminists had lost credibility supporting the sexual revolution of that period.[19] The researcher Robyn Reynolds described Purdue as an ‘anti-feminist’ but noted that if it was not for the abortion issue Purdue would be a staunch feminist supporter.[20]  

 In 1973, Purdue became an active member of the New Zealand branch of Feminists for Life which aligned agitation for women’s employment rights with a Catholic-flavoured overt anti-abortion stance.[21] In reaction to a pro-abortion march advertisement in Auckland University’s student magazine titled ’Ladies, Lose Ten Pounds Excess Flesh,’  Purdue wrote an open letter to the editor, suggesting the title be changed to ‘Fathers And Mothers, Lose By Poisoning, Burning or Dismemberment Your Full Time Daughter or Son.’[22]  

As President of Feminists for Life and Vice President of the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child, Purdue attended the first national gathering of the United Women’s Convention in 1973. She was a vocal and combative critic of section 15 of the proposed ‘Working Women’s Charter.’ Section 15 of the charter called for ‘all, financial, social and medical impediments to safe contraction, sterilisation and abortion to be removed as to allow the individual concerned to make their own decisions.’[23] Purdue believed that section 15 should be scrapped. as it was beyond the scope of the charter. [24] Purdue and 25 other anti-abortionists walked out of the convention.[25] Purdue subsequently submitted a ‘Mother’s petition’ and a ‘Concerned Citizen’ petition to Parliament in objection and to show support for ‘life and family.’

In 1974, she was elected to the Auckland Health Board and was the women’s representative for the Labour Party from 1974 to 1978. In 1975, Broadsheet ran an article by Christine Dann, attacking Purdue’s claim that she was a feminist.[26] In the same year, Purdue received an MBE for services to the public and the community.[27] Catholicism was increasingly important to Purdue as were traditional family structures and gender roles.[28] Her concern over the dangers to society by social practices against Christian values such as homosexuality, abortion, pornography and Māori cultural revitalisation shifted to safeguarding and/or protesting activities that would encourage the moral decline of society. She became celibate and advocated for the lifestyle.[29] In 1983, Feminists for Life changed its name to Women for Lifea signal of the organisation’s focus and rejection of then-current feminist and other social libratory perspectives. At odds with the pluralistic and socially liberal direction of the Labour Party, she left the party and became a member of the National Party, even as the National Party introduced anti-union legislation and the Employment Contract Act, which eroded worker rights.

In 1985, as a committee member of the Auckland Health Board at an employment appeal by Rina Rata (Ngatiwai, Ngapuhi) over institutional racism in employment policies, Purdue stated that she was not going to be intimidated by numbers when Rata’s extended whānau attended the proceedings. The proceedings were postponed.[30]  She also criticised Ngahuia te Awekotuku (Te Arawa, Tuhoe), who had once been a pallbearer at the mock funeral procession at Queen Albert Park in 1971 for attempting to align the lesbian rights movement with feminism, stating that she had put the women’s liberation movement back fifty years in doing so.[31] As a Spokesperson for ‘Women of Faith and Family’,  she described the 1990 screening of the choreographer Douglas Wright’s work Gloria on TVNZ as ‘the first step to pornography.’’[32]  

In 1993, she received the New Zealand Suffrage Centennial Medal[33] and after a long period of limited mobility, died at the age of 87, on March the 16th, 2000. While Purdue’s later perspectives may be alienating to modern sensibilities, she remains an important figure in union activism for women’s employment rights.  She is a case study of the challenges faced by women with conservative religious values confronting broad social changes in the 1970s and beyond. 


Tim McVicar
Tim McVicar

Tim McVicar is a Te Tai Tokerau based content writer and researcher who has lived and worked in the Republic of Georgia, Sudan and Palestine. He holds an MA from Victoria University of Wellington and a Master of Teaching and Educational Leadership from the Mind lab…

Recommended Further Reading:

Else, Anne (ed.) Women Together: a History of Women’s Organisations in New Zealand. Ngā Rōpū Wāhine o te Motu, Daphne Brasell Associates Press and Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1993, p 98-99

Rowland, Robyn (ed) Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: London: Routledge Kegan Paul: 1984

 ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

Bibliography:

 ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

Else, Anne (ed.) Women Together: a History of Women’s Organisations in New Zealand. Ngā Rōpū Wāhine o te Motu, Daphne Brasell Associates Press and Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1993, p 98-99

Rowland, Robyn (ed) Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: London: Routledge Kegan Paul: 1984

Reference List:

[1] Purdue, Connie. Oral History Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections NOH-AAA-0086 https://soundcloud.com/auckland-libraries/connie-purdue-class-action (retrieved 6 July 2021)

[2] Rowland, Robyn ‘Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: Issues for Conflict and Collaboration’ Sex Roles 1986 14 n 6, p 679 -692

[3], Page, Dorothy. ‘Soljak, Miriam Bridelia’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4s36/soljak-miriam-bridelia (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[4] Page Dorothy. ‘Soljak, Miriam Bridelia’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4s36/soljak-miriam-bridelia (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[5] Purdue, Connie. Oral History Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections NOH-AAA-0086 https://soundcloud.com/auckland-libraries/connie-purdue-class-action (retrieved 6 July 2021)

[6] Purdue, Connie. Oral History Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections NOH-AAA-0086 https://soundcloud.com/auckland-libraries/connie-purdue-class-action (retrieved 6 July 2021)

[7] Purdue, Connie. Oral History Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections NOH-AAA-0086 https://soundcloud.com/auckland-libraries/connie-purdue-class-action (retrieved 6 July 2021)

[8] Purdue, Connie. Oral History Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections NOH-AAA-0086 https://soundcloud.com/auckland-libraries/connie-purdue-class-action (retrieved 6 July 2021)

[9]  Hall, Lesley ‘The Personal is Also Political: The Relationship Between Political Activism and Family Life Among Members of the Communist Party of New Zealand’: Oral History in New Zealand: 17: 1-11

[10] Nolan, Melanie ‘Employment Organisations’ in Anne Else (ed.) Women Together: a History of Women’s Organisations in New Zealand. Ngā Rōpū Wāhine o te Motu, Daphne Brasell Associates Press and Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1993, p 202-203

[11] Nolan, Melanie ‘Employment Organisations’ in Anne Else (ed.) Women Together: a History of Women’s Organisations in New Zealand. Ngā Rōpū Wāhine o te Motu, Daphne Brasell Associates Press and Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1993, p 202-203

[12] TVNZ ‘Connie Purdue talks about the Setting up of NOW.’ NZ History Videos, date unspecified. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMFwZyy6e8o. (retrieved 5 July, 2021)

[13] TVNZ ‘Connie Purdue talks about the Setting up of NOW.’ NZ History Videos, date unspecified. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMFwZyy6e8o. (retrieved 5 July, 2021)

[14] TVNZ ‘Connie Purdue talks about the Setting up of NOW.’ NZ History Videos, date unspecified. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMFwZyy6e8o. (retrieved 5 July, 2021)

[15] ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[16] ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[17] ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021), (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 4-Nov-2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[18] Dalziel, Raewyn ‘National Organisation for Women 1972’, in Anne Else (ed.) Women Together: a History of Women’s Organisations in New Zealand. Ngā rōpū Wāhine o te Motu, Daphne Brasell Associates Press and Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1993, p 98-99

[19] Rowland, Robyn ‘Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: Issues for Conflict and Collaboration’ Sex Roles 1986 14 n 6, p 679 – 692

[20] Rowland, Robyn ‘Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: Issues for Conflict and Collaboration’ Sex Roles 1986 14 n 6, p 679 -692

[21] New Zealand Herald. Kiwis who left their mark on the Nation 29/12/2000. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/kiwis-who-left-their-mark-on-the-nation/5JTFQ2JDEQ5G2LKE4ZB6MUJAGE/ (retrieved, 5 July 2021)

[22]  ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[23] Welsh, Robyn, ‘Working Women’s Charter’ in Macdonald, Charlotte (ed.) The Vote, the Pill and the Demon Drink: A History of Feminist Writing in New Zealand, 1869–1993, Briget Williams Books, 1993 Wellington p 211-212

[24]  Welsh, Robyn, ‘Working Women’s Charter’ in Macdonald, Charlotte (ed.) The Vote, the Pill and the Demon Drink: A History of Feminist Writing in New Zealand, 1869–1993, Briget Williams Books,1993  Wellington  p 211-212

[25] ‘Sue Kedgley’ New Zealand History  https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/sue-kedgley Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 5 Mar 2019 (retrieved 6 July, 2021)

[26] Dann, Christine. ‘Connie Purdue – Self Styled FeministBroadsheet, Auckland, Dec 1975; n 35:p 1

[27] “No. 46595”. The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 14 June 1975. p. 7407.

[28] ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July, 2021)’

[29] Rowland, Robyn ‘Women Who Do and Women Who Don’t Join the Women’s Movement: Issues for Conflict and Collaboration’ Sex Roles 1986 14 n 6, p 679 -692

[30] Rata, Rina, ‘Hospital Board’  Broadsheet, Auckland Oct 1985; n 133: p 19

[31] Webb-Liddall, Alice ‘Five wāhine Māori protestors (who other Māori thought were a pain in the ass)’ The Spinoff. Aug 2019‘https://thespinoff.co.nz/atea/02-08-2019/five-wahine-maori-protestors-who-other-maori-thought-were-a-pain-in-the-ass/ (retried 5 July 2021)

[32] Purdue, Connie quoted at https://www.nzonscreen.com/title/gloria-1990/quotes NZ On Screen (retrieved 5 July 2021)

[33] “The New Zealand Suffrage Centennial Medal 1993 – register of recipients”. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 26 July 2018 (retrieved 5 July 2021).

Image Bibliography

Photo Source:  ‘Connie Purdue’ New Zealand History https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/connie-purdue Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated 4 Nov 2020 (retrieved 5 July 2021)

Published: August 6th, 2021

Last modified: January 5th, 2022

Cite as: Tim McVicar, Connie Purdue – Activist and “Anti-Feminist”, Womens History of New Zealand, Last modified January 2022, https://womenshistorynz.com/connie-purdue/

Categories
Izzy France

Fran Wilde

Fran Wilde, distinguished politician, social campaigner, business advisor, and activist. The woman who introduced the Homosexual Law Reform Bill to Parliament

Fran Wilde, born in Wellington in 1948, is a distinguished politician, social campaigner, business advisor, and activist. Wilde spent her early life in Wellington, attending Victoria University and Polytechnic and becoming a journalist before an intense passion for social issues in New Zealand in the 1970s propelled her into the political realm.[1]

Wilde was elected to Parliament as the MP for Wellington Central in 1981, entering Parliament alongside other leading women including Helen Clark and Ruth Richardson. She served as Parliamentary whip in the fourth Labour government between 1984 and 1987 and served as Minister of Tourism and Minister for Disarmament and Arms Control during Geoffrey Palmer’s prime minister-ship from 1989-1990. During her time in Parliament, Wilde advocated strongly for recognition of rape with marriage, a strongly feminist driven reform, nuclear free NZ, and adoption reform.[2]

Wilde (left) during her term as Wellington’s mayor. Source: National Library. https://natlib.govt.nz/records/22892824

Wilde is best known for her landmark achievement in introducing and heralding the Homosexual Law Reform Bill through Parliament between 1985 and 1986, which legalized consensual sex for homosexuals over the age of 16 in New Zealand. Wilde stated that she viewed it as a significant gap in New Zealand’s human rights laws, a long standing problem from Victorian colonial era laws concerning sex.

Considering the work needed to pass the bill, Wilde noted that “I don’t think we realized how big the reaction would be, we knew there would be a negative reaction, but I don’t think anyone realized how massive, and nasty, and vindictive it would be, it was truly ugly.”[3] Wilde battled with a team of Labour MPs to get the bill over the line in an 18 month campaign which saw many of New Zealand’s social conservatives mobilize and attack the gay community in virulently homophobic attacks, and with low levels of public and parliamentary support, the bill faced a narrow chance of passage from the outset.[4]

Alongside Trevor Mallard, who worked to help secure the votes and keep a running tally of the MPs who had pledged to vote for the law, and others such as Helen Clark and Michael Cullen, the bill successfully proceeded through its second reading and committee stages before passing after a third reading with 49 votes for and 44 against on 9 July 1986.[5] Wilde noted in 2016 that if 3 people had changed their minds, the bill would not have succeeded.[6]

Wilde with Governor General Patsy Reddy in 2017. Source: Office of the Governor General. https://gg.govt.nz/images/honourabledame-fran-wilde-wellingtondnzm-services-state-and-community

Though Wilde is perhaps best known for her shepherding the HLRB, her career in politics has spanned far beyond her parliamentary service between 1981 and 1992. In 1992, Wilde resigned from Parliament so that she could run for mayor of Wellington, an election she won with 32.91% of the vote to become Wellington’s first female mayor.[7]

During her single term as Wellington’s Mayor between 1992 and 1995, Wilde oversaw the construction of the city-to-sea bridge, the adoption of the current city slogan “absolutely positively Wellington” and helped carry through the plans for the construction of Westpac stadium. At the completion of her mayoral term Wilde decided to step away from politics, citing a need for more personal time, but would later serve on the Wellington regional council from 2004-2016, marking a uniquely lengthy career in local politics for someone who had previously been an MP.[8]

Throughout her career in politics, Wilde has been at the forefront of a number of social changes, advocating firmly for social justice issues at all levels of government. Her work on the Homosexual Law Reform Bill continues to benefit New Zealanders, and as she noted “Had the Christian fundamentalist lobby been successful they would have just moved in a big wave across a whole lot of other issues as well and that would have set New Zealand society back hugely.”[9]

Outside of politics, Wilde has served on numerous business, public, and corporate boards, including Housing New Zealand, Kiwi Can Do, a service that helps to get unemployed New Zealanders into skilled work, and the board of Te Papa, the national museum.[10] As recognition of her long service to the New Zealand public in a range of capacities, Wilde was made a Dame of the New Zealand Order of Merit for her services to the State and the community.[11] Wilde is still active in a number of roles in governance and community work and was honored for her efforts in passing the Homosexual Law Reform Bill at a panel with Trevor Mallard, the only current MP involved in the passage of the bill in 1986.


Liam Perkins
Liam Perkins

I’m Liam, I am 23, currently working on my MA project in US queer history in the 1970s.
I got involved with WHNZ to learn more about New Zealand history and contribute material to a database that would help others do so, as well as practice writing for different audiences. I really enjoy being able to learn and write about new topics on regular basis and helping others to do so.

Recommended Further Reading:

Bibliography:

Image Bibliography:
  1. Marilyn Waring: A woman’s view of parliament from 1975 to 1984 | Stuff.co.nz. Fran Wilde seen with Marilyn Waring https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/112579830/marilyn-waring-a-womans-view-of-parliament-from-1975-to-1984
  2. Mayor of Wellington, Fran Wilde, with… | Items | National Library of New Zealand | National Library of New Zealand (natlib.govt.nz) https://natlib.govt.nz/records/22892824
  3. Wilde with Governor General Patsy Reddy in 2017. Source: Office of the Governor General. The HonourableDame Fran Wilde, of Wellington,DNZM, for services to the State and the community | The Governor-General of New Zealand (gg.govt.nz) https://gg.govt.nz/images/honourabledame-fran-wilde-wellingtondnzm-services-state-and-community

Published: August 6th, 2021

Last modified: November 6th, 2021

Cite as: Liam Perkins, “Fran Wilde”, Womens History of New Zealand, Last modified November 2021, https://atomic-temporary-193744190.wpcomstaging.com/fran-wilde-new-zealand-campaigner/

Categories
Izzy France

Elizabeth Yates

“I think women are quite as well able to legislate as men…”

– Elizabeth Yates.[1]

Elizabeth Yates was the first female mayor in New Zealand and the British empire. She helped pave the way to gender equality and spent her life fighting for what she believed in. Elizabeth was born in Scotland around 1840-1848 [2]. She immigrated with her family to Auckland in 1853 when she was around 8 years old[3], later settling in Onehunga. In 1875 she married mariner Michael Yates, who would serve as mayor of Onehunga from 1888 – 1892. Soon after their wedding Elizabeth became involved in Auckland’s political community. She became a member of the Auckland union parliament emerging as a skilled debater, passionate about women’s suffrage.

Following her husband’s illness and subsequent retirement Elizabeth was nominated in 1893 for the Onehunga mayoralty. Friends strongly encouraged her to go for the role, recognizing her ability [4]. As a ratepayer and property holder she could compete and vote in local body elections, at a time where women still couldn’t in parliamentary elections [5]. She went on to win the election by 13 votes against her opponent, Frederick Court, on the 29th of November and became the first female mayor of New Zealand and the British Empire [6]. Elizabeth was appointed mayor just three months after women won the right to vote. Despite legal change, societal change was still yet to come. Her authority and ability to act as mayor was challenged, as some were still hesitant toward the newfound roles and rights women held.

Cartoon of Elizabeth as mayor. By Ashley Hunter cartoon, New Zealand Graphic, 7 April 1894, p. 324.
Elizabeth Yates. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/elizabeth-yates-first-female-mayor

Her position caused uproar. Four councilors and the town clerk resigned in protest of Elizabeth’s election. Her proposals were often met with unreasonably strong opposition, mainly from the same few councilors. [7] Some of the general public shared a similar sentiment, believing that council was not a place for a women. Elizabeth was seen as ‘dictatorial’ and having a ‘disregard for rules’[8]. These qualities may of contributed to opposition she faced, often being used as an excuse for challenging her. But maybe these qualities helped her navigate the continuous sexist opposition she faced, or were simply an excuse for challenging her.

Crowds would sometimes gather in the court, interrupting by shouting abuse during the proceedings. During one meeting, the mayoress decided to call the police to clear the crowd that had gathered, famously claiming that she “would not have the council burlesqued.” [9]. While some came to harass her, others came to marvel at the empires ‘first lady mayor’. They came from all over, even some from Australia [10]. She was seen as something between a miracle and a sideshow act, as well as a capable mayoress.

Photograph of the signed agreement for justice of the peace, swearing allegiance to Queen Victoria.
 Elizabeth Yates elected Mayor of Onehunga. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/49594021096
Photograph of the signed agreement for justice of the peace, swearing allegiance to Queen Victoria.
 Elizabeth Yates elected Mayor of Onehunga. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/49594021096

Despite opposition, Elizabeth continued to fulfill her duties as mayor. Having been widely acknowledged as a rarity, Elizabeth’s position as mayor had also attracted the attention of Queen Victoria, who congratulated her after her election [11] .

Other members of the public also supported her, in a letter to the editor a member of the public said “Women’s enfranchisement proceeds apace. Early this morning I read of the election of the new mayor of Onehunga, Mrs. Elizabeth Yates! She defeated a male candidate. If we Britishers have a queen, why not a lady mayor?”[12].

One volume of the Auckland Star in 1893 stated that “No doubt the ladies will feel proud that one of their sisters is now the chief magistrate of an important town.” The paper also felt that Mrs Yates was a great parliamentarian. [13].

Elizabeth was outvoted in the 1894 election by 90 votes. She didn’t return to politics again until 1899, where she served in the Onehunga borough council for two years. During this time she challenged the new mayor’s somewhat corrupt decisions. On one occasion, Elizabeth addressed the mayor’s disregard toward the proper protocol when appointing new councilors and his illegal use of council funds, ordering him to repay the money [14]. Michael Yates died in 1902. Then in 1909, Elizabeth was admitted to the Auckland Mental Hospital. She died their on the 6th of September, 1918. [15] and was buried with her husband.

During her lifetime Elizabeth improved Onehunga substantially making massive achievement in her time as a mayor. Just to mention a few she created a sinking fund to deal with future challenges concerning funding and repayment, She settled the region’s debt, made infrastructure upgrades including roads, footpaths and sewage and restored the Waikaraka Cemetery, a decisive and important issue in the community. Elizabeth left leaving a lasting impression on the political environment of both Auckland and New Zealand as its first female mayoress. Her legacy would go on to affect the view on women in politics and their growing equality in society.


Izzy France
Izzy France

Hi I’m Izzy! I am a student and feminist enthusiastic about changing society for the better by creating a more inclusive and equal New Zealand. I have a passion for the past and working with WHNZ has given me the opportunity to pursue my interest in New Zealand women’s history and share it with others! – Izzy

Recommended Further Reading:
Bibliography:
Reference list:

[1] Choice – Women in 19th Century Aotearoa. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.aucklandmuseum.com/discover/stories/history/choice-women-in-19th-century-aotearoa

[2] Yates, Elizabeth. (2021). Retrieved 16 July 2021, from https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2y1/yates-elizabeth

[3] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

[4] YATES-Elizabeth.pdf (graveinsightsonehunga.nz) https://www.graveinsightsonehunga.nz/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/YATES-Elizabeth.pdf

[5] YATES-Elizabeth.pdf (graveinsightsonehunga.nz) https://www.graveinsightsonehunga.nz/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/YATES-Elizabeth.pdf

[6] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

[7] Yates, Elizabeth. (2021). Retrieved 16 July 2021, from https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2y1/yates-elizabeth

[8] Engel, K. (2012). Elizabeth Yates, the British Empire’s first female mayor | Amazing Women In History. Retrieved 4 August 2021, from https://amazingwomeninhistory.com/elizabeth-yates-the-british-empires-first-female-mayor/

[9] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

[10] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

[11] Elizabeth Yates | NZHistory, New Zealand history online. (1893). Retrieved 16 July 2021, from https://nzhistory.govt.nz/people/elizabeth-yates

[12] Engel, K. (2012). Elizabeth Yates, the British Empire’s first female mayor | Amazing Women In History. Retrieved 4 August 2021, from https://amazingwomeninhistory.com/elizabeth-yates-the-british-empires-first-female-mayor/

[13] Papers Past | Newspapers | Auckland Star | 30 November 1893 | MAYORAL ELECTIONS. (natlib.govt.nz) https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/AS18931130.2.139?items_per_page=10&page=2&query=Elizabeth+Yates&snippet=true

[14] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

[15] Elizabeth Yates – First Woman Mayor in the British Empire. (2015). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/nz-society/audio/201757061/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayor-in-the-british-empire

Image Bibliography:
  1. Photograph of Elizabeth. Elizabeth Yates, Mayor of Onehunga, 1894. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/27551199038  (permitted for use under the creative commons license)
  1. Cartoon of Elizabeth as mayor. By Ashley Hunter cartoon, New Zealand Graphic, 7 April 1894, p. 324. Elizabeth Yates. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/elizabeth-yates-first-female-mayor
  1. Photograph of the signed agreement for justice of the peace, swearing allegiance to Queen Victoria. Elizabeth Yates elected Mayor of Onehunga. (2021). Retrieved 20 July 2021, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/49594021096 (permitted for use under the creative commons license)

Published: August 5th, 2021

Last modified: November 5th, 2021

Cite as: Izzy France, “Elizabeth Yates”, Womens History of New Zealand, Last modified November 2021, https://atomic-temporary-193744190.wpcomstaging.com/elizabeth-yates-first-woman-mayoress-new-zealand/